Some of my best friends are professors of Jewish history. They are wonderful people, and love what they do. However, they spend a lot of time trying to make sense of something completely illogical and improbable, namely the continued existence and flourishing of the Jewish people.
If the history of the Jewish people were a novel it would already be on the discount sale rack because the story is just so preposterous. We should have vanished into history many times over, but here we are.
The questions I would like to look at are where do we come from, why are we still here, and what are we here for?
Let’s take a quick look at the last thirty eight hundred years of Jewish history, because I want to show you that at no point was our survival as a people predictable or probable. Even our origin defies logic.
Think about Abraham and Sarah. God wants to start a new people. Who would you start with? Would you pick an elderly couple who was childless, homeless and jobless? Probably not, but that is who Abraham and Sarah were. God chose them because they were always on the side of the oppressed, the disenfranchised and those for whom society could find no use. They saw things in others that no one else did and created the family that would become the Jewish people.
Let’s go forward 1800 years. In the year 70 the Romans destroyed the Holy Temple of Jerusalem and set in motion the exile of the Jewish people around the world that would last into our own time. The reason you destroy a temple is to show that your god is more powerful than the god of the people you conquered. It would be logical and reasonable for that people to adopt the god or gods of their conquerors. We did not do that. We believed that God was not done with us, that God still loved us, though, it must be admitted that it seems at times God has a funny way of showing that love. Nonetheless, the Jews who went through that terrible period persisted in their faith.
The Jews of that time had, though, in some ways a bigger problem than the Roman occupation. The temple and its system of sacrifice was the one place for Jews that served for the expiation and forgiveness of sin. If you could not have your sins forgiven, then you could not have a relationship with God. Therefore, Judaism really should have stopped there. Instead, our sages said that there was a substitute for sacrifice that God actually preferred. That is Torah study, prayer, and acts of kindness to others above and beyond the minimum. This becomes Judaism as we know it today.
The sages created a system that was no longer dependent on a particular place, nor on an elitist priesthood, and made it accessible to every Jew, including those who went into exile. You cannot carry a temple with you, but you can carry your heart, mind and soul. Acts of kindness toward others, Jewish or not Jewish, was the equivalent of the high priest bringing the Yom Kippur sacrifice.
The idea was so revolutionary and against any conventional thinking about religion, that if they were to try it today they would be scorned by the very people who benefited from their courage.
Our sages, though, believed that we still had something to offer the world, the belief that might does not make right, and that there is no one stronger than the one that shows kindness to others, even during the worst of circumstances, even when it seems that that world has gone dark.
A thousand years later were the Crusades which destroyed so many Jewish communities of Europe. At this same time, Rashi and his students were writing some of the greatest Torah commentaries of all time, commentaries we study to this day. If you read their works, you would never guess the complete chaos of their lives. They refused to give in to that chaos, and created intellectual beauty, because they still believed in the essential or at least potential goodness of humanity.
Four hundred years later is the Spanish inquisition and the expulsion of the Jews from Spain. It is also the flourishing of Jewish mysticism, of kabbalah, as we know it. The kabbalists knew that their physical homes may be under threats from others, but the spiritual homes they built were permanent and eternal.
The most extraordinary period in all of Jewish history was of course the middle of the twentieth century. The holocaust should have meant an end to Judaism. Who would ever want to be Jewish afterward? Who would ever want to raise a Jewish family again? One of the most impressive acts of courage was the fact that so many survivors began families after everything they went through. Some of them started new families after having lost everyone in their previous family. They refused to allow the darkness to win.
Who could have imagined after such devastation, after such helplessness, that we would have our own country, or that in other countries such as America you would have more synagogues and yeshivot and day school and religious schools than in any point in our history? We should have disappeared from history, but instead we became a critical part of the world.
It sounds like a big part of being Jewish is experiencing tragedy. There are some who say that we have suffered more than anyone else in history. We certainly have had our share, but everybody suffers. The difference is that while so many other people’s have vanished or became marginal after their suffering, we have always found ways to recreate ourselves and continue to grow and develop.
None of this was predictable. None of this was logical. How did it happen? I think what we see is that throughout our history, we have always made a commitment to find meaning in life in times of tragedy and optimism in times of despair. We have always found light in the darkness, and have tried to bring that light to others. I believe that is the main reason for the Jewish people, and what we must always do if we are to continue as a people. If we do not, then Judaism becomes empty ritual and ethnic exclusivity.
The idea of revealing the light hidden in the world has been built into all aspects of Judaism since its beginning. In the Torah, the first thing that God creates is light. It cannot be sunlight, because the sun is not created until the fourth day. The kabbalists understand that light to be God’s spirit on earth. The world was a place of darkness and chaos, and God bring light and warmth to it. When humanity is cruel, then that light diminishes. When humanity is kind, then the light it revealed. Judaism, both in ritual and practice is about revealing that light.
On Shabbat we have two sets of light. Friday night when it begins, and Saturday night when it ends. The first set of lights are for you and your family at the end of the week. It is a reminder of the spark of God found within each of us, and a sign that we somehow made it through a week we may have thought we could not have. The lights of havdallah, though, are for us to bring that light with us wherever we go during the week. It is to remind us to be a source of light and comfort to everyone we encounter, including people we find difficult. It is amazing how quickly a kind word can change a challenging person into a grateful one.
The most famous lights of all are probably the Chanukah candles. This is more than bringing some light during the darkest time of the year, but remembering that we have survived the darkest moments in history and are here to celebrate. I want to share a story with you that I find so powerful. Our enemies have always tried to demoralize our leaders, because if the leader gives in, then all the followers will, too. During the holocaust a chasidic rabbi and his followers were all brought into a large warehouse. They had been in the camp for a while and were on the verge of starvation. The commandant of the camp when up to the rabbi and asked him if he would like the stick of margarine in his hand, which had enough calories to sustain a person for a number of days. All he had to do was fall on his knees and beg. The followers assumed the rabbi would refuse, but the rabbi begged. The commandant laughed, put the margarine on the floor, and ground it with the heel of his boot. He then left the warehouse to tell the others of how he had gotten the rabbi to beg. As soon as the commandant left, the rabbi told his disciples, “Don’t you know tonight is chanukah.” He pulled a button off his jacket, pulled off a few threads for a wick, gathered the margarine, and created a menorah. When the commandant returned, he found four hundred Jews singing maoz tzur. I wish I could tell you that they were all saved. They weren’t, but for that moment they showed the potential of the human spirit.
This is what it means when God tells us to be a light to the nations of the world. A light to nations, not to the world as a whole, but each nation and its individual needs. It is our task to help each country find the best within themselves. This is one of the reasons it is hard to neatly define the Jewish people. Who we are depends so much on where we live, and the people with whom we live. The goal is always the same, to make wherever we live better for all people. Every country we have lived in has been better because of us. It is no just a matter of business or science and technology. We have helped spread democracy and tolerance. We have stood up for the poor and disenfranchised often against our own economic interests. We have risked our lives for others, even those who do not love us. We have shown that loyalty to the country you live in and loyalty to your faith are not a compromise, but the fulfillment of that faith.
Jewish mysticism says that when God was creating the world he tried to contain the light in special vessels, but those vessels shattered. The shards of those vessels fell to earth, with a spark of that light attached to each broken peace.
The chasidic masters understood this as a metaphor for all the brokenness in people, that could be repaired if we found that spark of light within them.
This why so many Jews created organizations like JARC, Yad Ezra, Kadima and Friendship Circle, and have supported endless numbers of non-Jewish charities.
It is why so many Jews got involved in civil rights. For example, the late Rabbi Ernst Conrad was in Germany during kristallnacht. He ironically had just left a Wagner opera, when the riots began all around him. When he came to America, he fought for the rights of others, because he knew that the oppression of one group leads to the oppression of all.
The idea that each person has a spark of God within is even a reason that so many Jews became therapists. There is evidence that even Sigmund Freud was influenced by this idea of finding the light within the shards of the shattered vessel. Psychotherapy and other therapeutic treatments became a way of repairing the world, and saving people from the darkness of their lives.
The chasidic rabbis even extended this idea to how we think about our enemies. We must always defend ourselves, but we must still remember that our enemies are human, and have within them a spark of God as well, deeply buried as it may be. We must fight our enemies, not by our enemies standards, but by the standards of Jewish ethics. Psalm 27, the Psalm for the high holidays, says, Do not put within me the spirit of my enemies.
When we remember this we have done well. Our worst defeats have been when we have forgotten this. There is nothing greater that we can do than transform hatred into enlightenment. I believe this is the reason that we have returned to the land of Israel. It was not to build a Jewish fortress, but to help create a promised land for everyone. It is taking longer than we would like, but there is a reason that the national anthem is called Hatikvah, the hope. To be a Jew means to always have hope, even when there does not seem to be a chance. There is nothing logical about this hope, but as I have mentioned nothing about our history is logical. We might be the ones who truly see the dream of our ancestors fulfilled, that nation will not lift up sword against nation, and that humanity will no longer no war.
In every synagogue in the world there is an eternal light. It means that every generation before us defied the reality of the world, defied all the forces that tried to extinguish what was best in humanity, and chose life. It is also a challenge to us to stay strong, to not become bitter or cynical, and to embrace lives of meaning for us, our loved ones, and all of humanity even when things seem hopeless. If we do, we will be the light of a splendid and brilliant future.
Painting copyright Aaron Bergman
Moses was raised as a prince in the most powerful nation in the world, Egypt. He had enough power, authority, wealth, comfort and security for the rest of his life if he wanted. Instead, he gave up everything he had for one thing. That was to take a group of Hebrew slaves to freedom in a far away land that no one he knew had even seen.
The task was impossible and absurd. He took it on because it was the right thing. And he didn’t make it. He dies before bringing them into the land. We know they made it in successfully, but he only had hope and faith that they would.
He may have felt like he was going to die a failure. That is why God told him to go to the top of the mountain, and look West, North, South and East.
Just looking in two directions would have shown Moses the entire Land of Israel. Why did God have in look in all directins? Moses knew how far was left to go, but he needed to appreciate how far he had come and how far he had brought the people. His life mattered. The people never could have been where they were without him.
Dr. Martin Luther King’s final words were inspired by Moses. He was assassinated the next day.
On April 3rd, 1968, he said,
“Like anybody, I would like to live – a long life; longevity has its place. But I’m not concerned about that now. I just want to do God’s will. And He’s allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I’ve looked over. And I’ve seen the Promised Land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the Promised Land. So I’m happy, tonight. I’m not worried about anything. I’m not fearing any man. Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord.”
The last line is a quote from the Battle Hymn of the Republic which was written in November 1861, when it was far from clear that the battle to stop slavery would be won. It celebrates the struggle for justice combined with honest self reflection that would ultimately bring real freedom to everyone.
As a people we have to remember how far we have come, and how much we have contributed and continue to contribute to the world, in often impossible odds.
We hear about the PEW report on assimilation, and the war in Gaza, antisemitism in Europe, and in the media, even locally, and we start to despair.
We lose perspective. Things are scary, but nowhere near how bad things have been in the past.
We need to go on top of the mountain and look in each direction.
In the past, antisemitic acts were started by the government. Now, most governments protect us, or at least try.
We were banned or faced quotas from so many different institutions and professions. We are now accepted pretty much everywhere.
We can express our Judaism freely in every land that is actually free. Where we can’t do that, it is usually bad for everyone.
We still work to make the world better for everyone, whether they acknowledge it or not, whether they even hate us.
When Naftali Herz Imber wrote Hatikvah in 1877, the phrase lihiyot am chofshi beartzeinu, to be a free people in our own land, was just a line written on a piece of paper in a Russian tavern. Now it is a reality.
We may not have achieved all our goals of peace and security, but we have come so far. Just look around.
Painting: copyright Aaron Bergman
I have had a daughter in Jerusalem all summer working as an intern. She comes home next week. Another daughter goes to Jerusalem for the year about two weeks later. People ask me if I am nervous. I do not hesitate for a moment, and say absolutely. That might sound like a kind of surprising response for a rabbi, but let me explain.
I am a parent. I worry when they go on dates or to the mall. I worry about everything. I love them, and when you love people it is reasonable to worry. I try not to let my worrying, though, stop them from living their lives in a good and important way.
That being said, I do worry about them in Israel, but I believe that Israel is completely and unhesitatingly worth it. We have seen a world without Israel and it is so much more terrible than anything that is happening today.
Even under a barrage of rockets, and even faced with terror tunnels that have burrowed into the consciousness of so many Israelis, Israel is functioning at a high level. People are going to work. They are helping their neighbors. They are buying food for their family and making a joyous Shabbat. They are fully and completely alive and not consumed by their fear. They are cautious, but they are not paralyzed, and they are deeply grateful for our brave boys and girls, and men and women of the IDF and are united in their support in ways that have not been seen since the 1967 Six Day War. I am in awe of the young people from our community and Adat Shalom who serve in the IDF and pray for their safety.
Rabbi Nachman said, Kol HaOlam Kulo Gesher Tzar Maod, the entire world is a narrow bridge, V’Haikar Lo L’Fached Clal, but the important thing is to not be overwhelmed by our fear. A little healthy caution and concern is appropriate, but not when it changes who you are or how you live your life.
Israel is involved in a terrible struggle. It has had to make tough decisions that few other armies have had to make. Hamas in fact knows that Israel is one of the very few countries in the entire region that will take morality into consideration when it makes a battle plan. Hamas thinks that is a weakness of Israel they can exploit. It is instead one of Israel’s greatest strengths, and one that will, I pray, allow Israel to live in peace and prosperity and ultimately be a model to the rest of the Middle East of democracy and freedom.
Israel is not perfect, but it is a miracle. There are few countries in the world like Israel. There are none that face its daily existential challenges.
So again, am I worried? Absolutely. But I am even more proud and grateful.
Am Yisrael Chai.
I take a sketch book with me every time I go Israel. I started it a number of years ago, and took it with me when I was on the Adat Shalom trip this past February. Here are a couple of the pages. The first is from the Golan Heights. The other two are from the Dead Sea. They are all watercolors.
This week is the celebration of the giving of the Ten Commandments on Mount Sinai. The Hebrew word, though, is not really Commandment, but great precept. The purpose of these Ten Great Precepts are to liberate ourselves from so many things that prevent us from living our life fully.
We will study them together and develop meditations that can help us through our day in a better way.
This Sunday 6/1 at 9:30 am at Adat Shalom
Everyone is welcome
Memorial Day 2014
I often talk about how Israel and the Jewish community have helped so many around the world.
Today on Memorial Day, I want to talk about how much America has done for the Jewish people.
From the very beginning of our country, we have been treated as full and equal citizens by our most important leaders, starting with George Washington.
This is from the letter that sent to the Jewish community in Rhode Island:
“The Citizens of the United States of America have a right to applaud themselves for giving to Mankind examples of an enlarged and liberal policy: a policy worthy of imitation. All possess alike liberty of conscience and immunities of citizenship. It is now no more that toleration is spoken of, as if it was by the indulgence of one class of people that another enjoyed the exercise of their inherent natural rights. For happily the Government of the United States, which gives to bigotry no sanction, to persecution no assistance, requires only that they who live under its protection, should demean themselves as good citizens.
May the Children of the Stock of Abraham, who dwell in this land, continue to merit and enjoy the good will of the other Inhabitants; while every one shall sit under his own vine and fig tree, and there shall be none to make him afraid.
May the father of all mercies scatter light and not darkness in our paths, and make us all in our several vocations useful here, and in his own due time and way everlastingly happy.”
Abraham Lincoln extended these protections and rights. According to Harold Holzer Lincoln was the first president to appoint a Jewish military chaplain. Until then, all chaplains had to be Christian. He rescinded Grant’s Order 11 that would Jews from Union territories under the general’s control.
Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise said at the time: “The President fully convinced us that he knew of no distinction between Jews and Gentiles and that he feels none against any nationality and especially against Israelites.”
At Congregation Shearith Israel in Manhattan the mourners’ Kaddish was recited for the first time in memory of a non-Jew. They called Lincoln “Father Abraham.”
The Jewish War Veterans were established in 1896.The group holds a congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code. They were the very first veteran’s group in the United States.
In the preamble to its National Constitution the purpose of the JWV is stated:
To maintain true allegiance to the United States of America; to foster and perpetuate true Americanism; to combat whatever tends to impair the efficiency and permanency of our free institutions; to uphold the fair name of the Jew and fight his or her battles wherever unjustly assailed; to encourage the doctrine of universal liberty, equal rights, and full justice to all men and women; to combat the powers of bigotry and darkness wherever originating and whatever their target; to preserve the spirit of comradeship by mutual helpfulness to comrades and their families; to cooperate with and support existing educational institutions and establish educational institutions, and to foster the education of ex-servicemen and ex-servicewomen, and our members in the ideals and principles of Americanism; to instill love of country and flag, and to promote sound minds and bodies in our members and our youth; to preserve the memories and records of patriotic service performed by the men and women of our faith; to honor their memory and shield from neglect the graves of our heroic dead.
Many people know how much the American army did to liberate the concentration camps at the end of the Holocaust, and how General Eisenhower ordered every available camera to be used to document the enormity of the tragedy. He knew in the future that people would challenge the truth of the Nazi crimes and he wanted to make sure there was an incontestable record.
What is not widely known is that the army was not just concerned about the physical well being of the survivor, but their spiritual and emotional health, as well. They commissioned a special full nineteen volume edition of Talmud especially for the survivors, call The Survivor’s Talmud.
The title page of each volume depicts a Nazi slave labor camp surrounded by barbed wire. Above it are palm trees and scenes in Israel. These images are connected by the Hebrew words: “From bondage to freedom, from darkness to a great light”.
In the first volume of the Talmud, this dedication appeared in English:
In 1946 we turned to the American Army Commander to assist us in the publication of the Talmud. In all the years of exile it has often happened that various governments and forces have burned Jewish books. Never did any publish them for us. This is the first time in Jewish history that a government has helped in the publication of the Talmud, which is the source of our being and the length of our days. The Army of the United States saved us from death, protects us in this land, and through their aid does the Talmud appear again in Germany.
Each volume of the Talmud also included this dedication in English:
This edition of the Talmud is dedicated to the United States Army. The army played a major role in the rescue of the Jewish people from total annihilation and after the defeat of Hitler bore the major burden of sustaining the DPs of the Jewish faith. This special edition of the Talmud published in the very land where, but a short time ago, everything Jewish and of Jewish inspiration was anathema, will remain a symbol of the indestructibility of the Torah. The Jewish DPs will never forget the generous impulses and the unprecedented humanitarianism of the American forces, to whom they owe so much.
(Signed) Rabbi Samuel A. Snieg, Chief Rabbi of the U.S. Zone
America tried to return Jewish books and ritual items after the Holocaust. The army hired a scholar to go to Europe and identify and catalogue all these books. Most of the original owners had perished, and the communities had been wiped out.The books were given to the Jewish community in America or housed at the Library of Congress.
The Library of Congress now has more than half a million pieces of Judaica and Hebraica, the largest collection outside of Jewish institutions.
There would be no state of Israel without America’s enduring friendship. No other country has consistently supported Israel or has recognized its right to survive.
America is also the place of the greatest Jewish creativity of the last several hundred years, including egalitarian approaches to prayer and community. We have been free to create our own communities, while still being fully loyal citizens.
Veterans have given so much for all of us to be free. However, we as a country have failed them in so many ways. Tremendous percentage of those who are homeless or unemployed or facing psychological or physical traumas are veterans. This is unacceptable. Support groups like Wounded Warriors. Call your representatives and demand better treatment.
I want to share the names of the most recent casualties, to at least put a name on the people who defend us.
The Department of Defense announced today the death of soldiers who were supporting Operation Enduring Freedom.
Spec. Adrian M. Perkins, 19, of Pine Valley, California, died May 17, in Amman, Jordan, from a non-combat related injury.
He was assigned to 1st Battalion, 67th Armor Regiment, 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 4th Infantry Division, Fort Carson, Colorado.
Command Sgt. Maj. Martin R Barreras, 49, of Tucson, Arizona, died May 13, in San Antonio Military Medical Center, Joint Base San Antonio, Texas, from wounds suffered on May 6, in Harat Province, Afghanistan, when enemy forces attacked his unit with small arms fire.
He was assigned to the 2nd Battalion, 5th Infantry, 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 1st Armored Division, Fort Bliss, Texas.
I pray that those who served will all get the help and recognition they deserve.
I pray that the families of all those who gave their lives feel our eternal gratitude and respect.
According to a recent study of Jewish observance, Chanukah is the holiday that more Jews observe than any other. The Passover Seder, however, is probably the most celebrated ritual in Jewish life that does requires more than lighting candles and frying potatoes. So many people have a Seder that we do not realize what a revolutionary idea it is.
To the best of my knowledge, the Seder is the first significant religious event that took place originally at home and not in a temple. It is still primarily home based. The Sedarim not done in the home are based on the ones that are.
In the history of religion, not just Judaism, the most important rituals took place in public and were performed exclusively by the religious leadership on behalf of the people. They were completely controlled and supervised by the priesthood.
The first Seder took place in Egypt, the night before the Exodus. It took place in the homes and was conducted by the people who lived there. It would have been very dangerous to conduct it in public, perhaps, but if God had wanted it that way I am there could have been a miracle allowing it to happen.
The Torah instead empowers the people to have a discussion about freedom that makes sense to them, without outside interference or criticism.
Even later, the high priest had no more standing at a Seder than anyone else.
The Seder was the beginning of the idea that any space could be sacred and holy if the people in it made it so.
It is to remind us of our responsibility to uncover and rediscover the inherent holiness of all places.
Let’s look at some of the rituals. First, the wine. All Jewish holidays and Shabbat have a blessing over wine. On Passover, there is more than one cup. There was a disagreement whether there should be four cups or five. The rabbis decided to compromise and drink four, leaving a fifth on the table, for when Elijah would come some day and decide. The wine, then, is a metaphor for the importance of compromise. That is how we begin.
The motzi, the blessing we say over challah, is exactly the same as the one we say
over matzah. Challah is soft and chewy. Matzah is not. Both, though, are nutritious and will sustain us. The Seder teaches us to be grateful for the things in our lives that we take for granted or feel we are entitled to. We learn that everything can be delicious if we appreciate how lucky we are to have it.
The Haggadah is important for what it says, but maybe even more so for who says it. For many centuries in many cultures there was the idea that children should be seen but not heard, that they were merely empty vessels in which the adults would pour in the knowledge they felt was necessary. It is amazing to me that our sages thousands of years ago understood that education can only begin when the child is genuinely curious, and that the adults teach to the interest and level of the child. It also speaks to the importance of listening to everyone in the house, both the most powerful and the most vulnerable .At the Seder everyone is heard, and everyone deserves a good and thoughtful answer.
Preparing for Passover is a reminder that we can live every moment in a sacred and holy place. Cleaning for Pesach means getting rid of all those things that prevent us from seeing that.
What can we each do to make our homes into a place of freedom and joy in responsibility? That is the real question that we ask at the Seder.